You are here:Useful information> Fire Safety Information> Element of Fire Triangle Concept

Element of Fire Triangle Concept


Under normal condition, according to phyical status of fuel, there are three types:

• Solid ( e.g. wood, coal etc. )

•  Liquid ( e.g. oil, fossil fuel etc. )

• Gases ( e.g. town gas, hydrogen etc. )


Heat is a form of energy, producting by proces of phyical and chemical changes. High strenght of heat cause combustion of material, heat production by combustion of material continuous the fire until fuel is ended.


Air contain mixture of many gases, the main component of air is nitrogen and oxygen. oxygen cannot be combusted but under normal condition all of cambution do not happen without oxygen. The component of air is following:

  • Oxygen 79.04%
  • Nitrogen 20.93%
  • Carbon dioxide 0.03%

Combustion Process

During combustion process, matter (including solid & liquid) must be pre-heated to vaporize gas, then mix with oxygen to carry out chemical process making combustion.

Fire Triangle

Fire require three necessary elements at same time so that fire can be formed and vice versa. So, the burning science called "Fire Triangle".

Fire triangular pyramid

According to reccent research and survey, combution at combustion process produe one product called (Radial) which is mid-way compound. If we can remove all, we can stop the combustion response to achieve extinguishing effects, for example¡R

Bromodichloromethane(BCF) can combine radial to achieve extinguishing effects. Thus, recent basic Primciple of fire extinguishing, some principle add compound into fire triangle to become fire triangular pyramid.

Basic Primciple of fire extinguishing

Basic Primciple of fire extinguishing focus on four elment of burning, remove one or more elements, cause chemical process of combustion to stop. Fire extinguishing have four methods:

Basic Primciple of fire extinguishing

Burning Condition

Method name

Primciple of fire extinguishing

Combustible Material


Remove and clear Combustible Material

place combustible material away from fire or remove from self-combusted fire flame.

Supporter of combustion (oxygen)


Remove supporter of combustion.

Remove, block or reduce content of oxygen in air.

Heat energy


Reduce heat energy.

Reduce temperature of combustible material below burning point.

Radial process


Damage radial process.

Add chemical that combine radial to achieve extinguishing effect to damge or block any burning response.


This method remove fuel supply to make fire without fuel so thatb fire is extinguished.

General method is following¡R

•  place combustible material away from fire.

•  place material on fire away from other combustible material.

•  split material into small pieces to reduce strenght of fire, then extinguish or burning until all material is ended.


Redure oxygen content in air arounding flame to end chemical change of fuel and oxygen (oxidization). fire will be extinguished. However, this method not suitable for material which produce oxygen such as Celluloid. General method is following¡R ¡R

•  User uncombustible material to cover fire. As a result, fire cannot contact air.

•  User unsupporter gases of combustion ( extinguishing gases such as caeban dioxide, nitrogen and so on ) to shoot the flame, blocking air to contact flame, fire will be ended.


When heat producting by combustion cannot supply loss of heat energy, the temperature of heat will decrease to cancel combustion. General method using heat-absorbing material e.g. water shot the flame. Thus, heat producting by combustion will be absorbed to cancel combustion.


(C) WKS Fire Engineering Co. & WKS
Engineering Ltd All Rights Reserved

Office Address: Room 1, 5/F Tai Shing Industrial Building, 273-279 Un Chau Street, Sham Shui Po, Kowloon
Workshop Address: Rm 4, Block A1, 15/F., Kin Hing Industrial Bldg, 17-23 Shek Kin Street, Kwai Chung
Tel:(852)2625 5554 Fax:(852)2625 0035

Update Date: 25-8-2011

[Important Notices] [Personal Privacy][Freqency Asked Question][Sitemap]